PROGENEX RECOVERY . by Progenex: Scientific Review Article
Scientific Review of Whey Protein Hydrolysates and Sports Performance
Sports performance is associated with several physiological challenges:dehydration, depletion of muscle fuels, increased oxidant formation, mechanicaldamage to muscle, oxidation of essential amino acids leading to immunesuppression and low recovery from exercise. Therefore, many athletes look for an edge to enhance performance, endurance,stamina, muscle strength and/or decrease recovery time. Some individuals useimproved training, better nutrition, individual supplements or combination of specific nutrients before, after or during training to target desired outcomes basedon scientific studies in the literature.Progenex . My Progenex, a science-based company, has formulated Progenex Recovery . by Progenex using a wheyprotein hydrolysate, with a very high percentage of di- and tripeptides, to improverecovery time and speed tissue repair from eccentric exercise-induced muscledamage.
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Basic Facts about Protein Hydrolysates
Not all protein hydrolysates are created equal. While all protein hydrolysates areproduced from purified protein sources by heating with acid or preferably additionof proteolytic enzymes followed by a purification process (1), each proteinhydrolysate is a complex mixture of peptides of different chain lengths along withfree amino acids. Two protein hydrolysates made by different methods may have asimilar degree of hydrolysis but their absorption kinetics based on their proportionof di- and tripeptides are likely quite different.
Absorption of Protein Hydrolysates
Research in 1994 established that only di- and tripeptides are absorbed intact afterluminal and brush-border peptidase digestion (2). Longer chain peptides undergohydrolysis at the brush-border before they can be absorbed. More importantly, theproportion of di- and tripeptides determines the absorption kinetics of a proteinhydrolysate (3). Adi-bi and Morse (4) established that tetraglycine undergoeshydrolysis by brush border oligopeptidases in the human jejunum; the hydrolysis of tetraglycine to either di- or tripeptides is the rate limiting step in the uptake of glycine; greater glycine uptake occurs from di- and triglycine than from freeglycine. Protein hydrolysates containing a preponderance of di- and tripeptides,such as whey protein hydrolysate, are absorbed faster than intact proteins and freeamino acids. Under conditions of rapid intestinal infusion, amino acids from proteinhydrolysates appear in the portal circulation faster than even free amino acids (5)
Utilization of Whey Protein Hydrolysates
Fast-acting protein hydrolysates and/or amino acids supplements result in lessefficient uptake by the splanchnic bed—liver and portal-drained viscera (stomach,intestines, pancreas and spleen)—increasing the magnitude of amino acids in thesystemic circulation that are available for muscle growth and repair (muscle proteinanabolism) (1). First pass extraction by splanchnic tissues describes the proportionof ingested amino acids that is sequestered during its initial transit through thesplanchnic bed and not appearing in systemic blood (6). The portal-drained visceracan account for between 20 to 35 % of whole body protein turnover and energyexpenditure (6). Therefore, the kinetics of amino acid absorption can substantially modulate their ability to stimulate muscle protein anabolism. An oral supplementcontaining 30g of carbohydrate and 15g of essential amino acids induces asubstantially greater anabolic effect than ingestion of a mixed meal containing asimilar amount of essential amino acids (7). Ingestion of whey protein hydrolysateresults in a larger increase in blood amino acids and mixed muscle protein synthesisthan soy protein or casein both at rest and after resistance exercise (8).
Whey Hydrolysates, Body Composition, Muscular Strength, PerformanceAnd Recovery
During training: Recreational male bodybuilders supplemented their normal dietwith either whey protein hydrolysate or casein (1.5g/kg body weight/day) during a10 week supervised resistance training program (9). The group supplemented withwhey hydrolysate achieved substantially greater gains in muscle strength and leanbody mass compared to the casein group (9). Post training: To determine whether hydrolyzed whey protein speeds recoveryfollowing isometric exercise, males performed 100 maximal eccentric contractionsof their knee extensors and then consumed either 24g of hydrolyzed whey proteinor intact whey protein. Peak isometric torque recovered fully in 6 hours forindividuals given the whey protein hydrolysate whereas it remained suppressed inthe group given intact whey protein (10).
Therefore, whey protein hydrolysates offer ergogenic benefits when consumedduring and after exercise.
Comparison Of Glucose Verses Glucose And Whey/Casein Hydrolysates OrBranched Chain Amino Acids On Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis. (AnimalStudies)
Fully restored muscle glycogen levels are critical to recovery and future training. If muscle glycogen stores are not fully recovered, the time to exhaustion diminishesresulting in reduced training ability.
Knowing what specific nutrients can boost muscle glycogen stores can improve anathlete’s performance. Morifuji et al
fed male Sprague-Dawley rats eitherglucose alone, glucose + whey protein, glucose + whey protein hydrolysate,glucose + casein hydrolysate or glucose + branched chain amino acids immediatelyafter a glycogen-depleting exercise. Only the rats given the glucose + whey proteinhydrolysate had significant increases in skeletal muscle glycogen levels comparedto the other protein sources or BCAA. Using rat L6 myotubes, Morifuji et al
(12) showed that branched chain amino acid-containing di-peptides in whey protein hydrolysate (Ile-Leu, Leu-Val, Val-Leu, Ile-Ile, Leu-Ile, Ile, Leu) significantly stimulated glucose uptake using an in vitro model. These researchers also demonstrated that the main di-peptide in wheyprotein hydrolysate (Ile-Leu) stimulated glucose uptake in rat isolated epitrochlearismuscles. Therefore, whey protein hydrolysate enhances the effects of carbohydrate ingestionon post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis for both in vivo and in vitro models. Insulin Secretion And Skeletal Muscle Anabolism
The most important trigger for insulin secretion is glucose. However, secretion of insulin can be induced by amino acids as well. Leucine is a potent insulintropicmolecule, but recent evidence suggests that a rise in glucose concentration isnecessary for leucine to stimulate significant insulin secretion (13). Additional research has shown that insulin-induced increase in muscle proteinanabolism is age dependent. In young adults, insulin is mainly permissive ratherthan stimulatory for muscle protein anabolism, whereas in older adults super highlevels of insulin appear to be necessary to stimulate muscle protein anabolism (14). To learn more about Progenex . My Progenex high-quality whey protein hydrolysates visit www.progenexusa.com
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